The text of CanadianWiki is copyrighted (automatically, under the Berne Convention) by CanadianWiki editors and contributors and is formally licensed to the public under one or several liberal licenses. Most of CanadianWiki's text and many of its images are co-licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts). Some text has been imported only under CC BY-SA and CC BY-SA-compatible license and cannot be reused under GFDL; such text will be identified on the page footer, in the page history, or on the discussion page of the article that utilizes the text. Every image has a description page that indicates the license under which it is released or, if it is non-free, the rationale under which it is used.
The licenses CanadianWiki uses grant free access to our content in the same sense that free software is licensed freely. CanadianWiki content can be copied, modified, and redistributed if and only if the copied version is made available on the same terms to others and acknowledgment of the authors of the CanadianWiki article used is included (a link back to the article is generally thought to satisfy the attribution requirement; see below for more details). Copied CanadianWiki content will therefore remain free under an appropriate license and can continue to be used by anyone subject to certain restrictions, most of which aim to ensure that freedom. This principle is known as copyleft in contrast to typical copyright licenses.
To this end,
- Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify CanadianWiki's text under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and, unless otherwise noted, the GNU Free Documentation License. unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts.
The English text of the CC BY-SA and GFDL licenses is the only legally binding restriction between authors and users of CanadianWiki content. What follows is our interpretation of CC BY-SA and GFDL, as it pertains to the rights and obligations of users and contributors.
- 1 Contributors' rights and obligations
- 2 Governing copyright law
- 3 Canadian Government Wiki
- 4 See also
Contributors' rights and obligations
If you contribute text directly to CanadianWiki, you thereby license it to the public for reuse under CC BY-SA and GFDL (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts). Non-text media may be contributed under a variety of different licenses that support the general goal of allowing unrestricted re-use and re-distribution. See Guidelines for images and other media files, below.
If you want to import text that you have found elsewhere or that you have co-authored with others, you can only do so if it is available under terms that are compatible with the CC BY-SA license. You do not need to ensure or guarantee that the imported text is available under the GNU Free Documentation License, unless you are its sole author. Furthermore, please note that you cannot import information which is available only under the GFDL. In other words, you may only import text that is (a) single-licensed under terms compatible with the CC BY-SA license or (b) dual-licensed with the GFDL and another license with terms compatible with the CC BY-SA license. If you are the sole author of the material, you must license it under both CC BY-SA and GFDL.
If the material, text or media, has been previously published and you wish to donate it to CanadianWiki under appropriate license, you will need to verify copyright permission through one of our established procedures. See CanadianWiki:Donating copyrighted materials for details. If you are not a copyright holder, you will still need to verify copyright permission; see the Using copyrighted work from others section below.
You retain copyright to materials you contribute to CanadianWiki, text and media. Copyright is never transferred to CanadianWiki. You can later republish and re license them in any way you like. However, you can never retract or alter the license for copies of materials that you place here; these copies will remain so licensed until they enter the public domain when your copyright expires (currently some decades after an author's death).
Using copyrighted work from others
All creative works are copyrighted, by international agreement, unless either they fall into the public domain or their copyright is explicitly disclaimed. Generally, CanadianWiki must have permission to use copyrighted works. There are some circumstances under which copyrighted works may be legally utilized without permission; see CanadianWiki:Non-free content for specific details on when and how to utilize such material. However, it is our goal to be able to freely redistribute as much of CanadianWiki's material as possible, so original images and sound files licensed under CC BY-SA and GFDL (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts) or in the public domain are greatly preferred to copyrighted media files used under fair use or otherwise.
If you want to import media (including text) that you have found elsewhere, and it does not meet the non-free content policy and guideline, you can only do so if it is public domain or available under terms that are compatible with the CC BY-SA license. If you import media under a compatible license which requires attribution, you must, in a reasonable fashion, credit the author(s). You must also in most cases verify that the material is compatibly licensed or public domain. If the original source of publication contains a copyright disclaimer or other indication that the material is free for use, a link to it on the media description page or the article's talk page may satisfy this requirement. If you obtain special permission to use a copyrighted work from the copyright holder under compatible terms, you must make a note of that fact (along with the relevant names and dates) and verify this through one of several processes. See CanadianWiki:Requesting copyright permission for the procedure for asking a copyright holder to grant a usable license for their work and for the processes for verifying that license has been granted.
Never use materials that infringe the copyrights of others. This could create legal liabilities and seriously hurt CanadianWiki. If in doubt, write the content yourself, thereby creating a new copyrighted work which can be included in CanadianWiki without trouble.
Note that copyright law governs the creative expression of ideas, not the ideas or information themselves. Therefore, it is legal to read an encyclopedia article or other work, reformulate the concepts in your own words, and submit it to CanadianWiki, so long as you do not follow the source too closely. (See our Copyright FAQ for more on how much reformulation may be necessary as well as the distinction between summary and abridgment.) However, it would still be unethical (but not illegal) to do so without citing the original as a reference (see the plagiarism guideline).
Linking to copyrighted works
Since most recently-created works are copyrighted, almost any CanadianWiki article which cites its sources will link to copyrighted material. It is not necessary to obtain the permission of a copyright holder before linking to copyrighted material, just as an author of a book does not need permission to cite someone else's work in their bibliography. Likewise, CanadianWiki is not restricted to linking only to CC BY-SA or open-source content.
However, if you know or reasonably suspect that an external Web site is carrying a work in violation of the creator's copyright, do not link to that copy of the work. An example would be linking to a site hosting the lyrics of many popular songs without permission from their copyright holders. Knowingly and intentionally directing others to a site that violates copyright has been considered a form of contributory infringement in the United States (Intellectual Reserve v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry ). Linking to a page that illegally distributes someone else's work sheds a bad light on CanadianWiki and its editors.
The copyright status of Internet archives in Canada is unclear, however. It is currently acceptable to link to internet archives such as the Wayback Machine, which host unmodified archived copies of webpages taken at various points in time.
In articles about a website, it is acceptable to include a link to that website even if there are possible copyright violations somewhere on the site.
Context is also important; it may be acceptable to link to a reputable website's review of a particular film, even if it presents a still from the film (such uses are generally either explicitly permitted by distributors or allowed under fair use). However, linking directly to the still of the film removes the context and the site's justification for permitted use or fair use.
If you suspect a copyright violation, you should at least bring up the issue on that page's discussion page. Others can then examine the situation and take action if needed. Some cases will be false alarms. For example, text that can be found elsewhere on the Web that was in fact copied from CanadianWiki in the first place is not a copyright violation on CanadianWiki's part.
If a page contains material which infringes copyright, that material – and the whole page, if there is no other material present – should be removed. See CanadianWiki:Copyright violations for more information, and CanadianWiki:Copyright problems for detailed instructions.
Guidelines for images and other media files (Anchors|Images|Videos|Audio|Image guidelines)
Images, photographs, video and sound files, like written works, are subject to copyright. Someone holds the copyright unless they have explicitly been placed in the public domain. Images, video and sound files on the internet need to be licensed directly from the copyright holder or someone able to license on their behalf. In some cases, fair use guidelines may allow them to be used irrespective of any copyright claims; see CanadianWiki:Non-free content for more.
Image description pages must be tagged with a special tag to indicate the legal status of the images, as described at CanadianWiki:Image copyright tags. Untagged or incorrectly-tagged images will be deleted.
Governing copyright law
CanadianWiki is based in Canada and accordingly governed by Canadian copyright law. Regardless, CanadianWiki contributors should respect the copyright law of other nations, even if these do not have official copyright relations with Canada.
A brief summary of non-Canadian. copyright laws, including guidelines on determining copyright status of the material in the United States, is available at CanadianWiki:Non-Canadian. copyrights.
Works by the Canadian Government
Works produced by civilian and military employees of the Canada federal government in the scope of their employment are public domain by statute in Canada (though they may be protected by copyright outside of Canada.). It is not enough that the employee was working at the time; he/she must have made the work as part of his/her duties (e.g. a soldier who takes a photograph with his/her personal camera while on patrol in Iraq owns the copyright to the photo, but it may find its way onto a unit webpage or otherwise be licensed to the government).
However, not every work republished by the Canadian government falls into this category. The Canadian government can own copyrights that are assigned to it by others – for example, works created by contractors.
Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the Canadian Government, but the Canadian Government is not precluded from receiving and holding copyrights transferred to it by assignment, bequest, or otherwise.
Moreover, images and other media found on .gc.ca websites may be using commercial stock photography owned by others. It may be useful to check the privacy and security notice of the website, but only with an email to the webmaster can you be confident that an image is in the public domain.
Note that the Canadian government does claim copyright protection on its own works. (For example, several Commonwealth realms utilize Crown copyright.)
Canadian Government Wiki
CanadianWiki may be a place where you can edit or create articles, as any one can from another nation. However, no one person owns an article on CanadianWiki and this includes a Government Minister, Member of Parliament, Senator, Deputy Prime Minister, Prime Minister or Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, and this applies to any person in a department of affiliation with the Government of Canada, and opposition parties. The Government of Canada has their own wiki in place, and that can be found here.